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Additive manufacturing process


Additive manufacturing is a process for the cost-effective, fast and flexible production of models, from prototypes to small batches. The workpieces, which are described in data models (mostly STL files), are constructed layer by layer in chemical and physical processes. Even the most intricate design can be realized so precisely. Coplex exterior and interior structures can be implemented. The following list gives an overview of the various printing methods:

Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF, FDM)

Melting layer fabrication. Most popular method in 3D printing. Layered printing with molten materials.

Stereolithography (STL, SLA, DLP)

Single layers of the 3D model are projected onto the surface of a liquid material using a laser or light source. The liquid solidifies in place of laser focus.

Thermo Jet Printing (TJ)

Piezo-electric printheads carry small droplets of wax-like thermoplastic on a platform. In the print head of the ThermoJet, 352 nozzles are arranged in a line.

MultiJet Modeling (MJM)

Liquid, light-sensitive plastic is layered over a printhead onto a platform and immediately cured by an integrated light source.

Powder (3DP)

An "additive layer manufacturing" process that uses powder as the basis for 3D printing.

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

A method to produce three-dimensional structures by sintering of a powdered starting material. Powdered media is fused by means of a high-power laser in a protective atmosphere.

Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

Powdered media is fused by means of a high-power laser in a protective atmosphere.

Electron beam melting (EBM)

Powdered metals are fused in vacuum over a controllable electron beam.

Film Transfer Imaging (FTI)

A transport foil is used to apply a light-sensitive, liquid plastic to a platform and to harden it with a projector.

Photopolymer Phase Change Inkjets (PolyJet)

Very fine liquid photopolymer acrylic resin droplets are sprayed onto a construction platform in ultra-thin layers of up to 0.016 mm from up to eight printheads and hardened by UV light.

Layer Laminated Manufacturing (LLM)

An adhesive-coated material of paper, plastic or metal foil is laminated (layered) by layer on a construction platform or on the ready-to-use model (laminated). The outline of each slice layer is traced and cut using a laser beam.

Subtractive manufacturing processes

3D milling / 3D grinding

"The figure was already contained in the raw stone. I just had everything superfluous chip off "This is supposed to have said, according to tradition, Mikelangelo about his work. Precisely according to this principle, the subtractive manufacturing process works. The workpieces, which are described in the same data models as are used for 3D printing, are milled or ground from the solid. Metals, plastics, organic and inorganic materials can be processed. A disadvantage of these methods is that in milling or grinding a structure as a rule at least twice the material volume of the actual model is lost as waste. Also, the possible complexity of the mold depends very much on the technical equipment of the machines and the number of machining axes.


Glass inner engraving

One method, many names: glass inner engraving, laser engraving or vitrography is a method for the representation of pictures of three-dimensional bodies within a transparent solid material, often called 3D laser crystal. In addition to glass, other materials such as sapphire, diamond, PMMA and polycarbonate can also be engraved. In contrast to the 2-dimensional photography, in which a person or a scene is displayed, for example, on a photopaper, the 3D photo is displayed, for example, in a glass block and can be viewed from all sides, like the object or the person himself will be. The recording of portraits can be made with a 3D scanner, for example. The determined data of the three-dimensional image are converted into a point cloud by means of software. The file contains every single point of the portrait arranged within a three-dimensional space.

Each model model offered at ezepio can be used to be engraved into glass.